Mardin is one of the interesting settlements of Southeastern Anatolia with a different structure. The city was established on an area of 2,500 m in length and 500 m in width from east to west on the southern slopes of the Mazı Mountains (Masius). From the castle and from the inside, Mardin houses seem to be stacked one on another. This moreover and tight construction, arising from the natural location, gives the city an original look. The houses that descend in the form of terraces towards the plain starting from the castle skirt with the wooded view of the environment create an interesting contradiction. This building, which continues to be a part of the medieval architecture today, shows the character of a closed region completely different from the urbanization structure (structure) of Şanlıurfa and Diyarbakır, which is closely connected with the North Syrian architecture.
Mardin is one of the most important cities in the Anatolian home architecture, where the stone architecture defined as “similar to Northern Syria” is exemplified in the cities of Niğde and Kayseri in Central Anatolia and more commonly in the Southeastern Anatolia Region. Indeed, yellow limestone, which has many quarries in the region, dominated the production of the building, and was not included in the wood except for its mandatory uses such as doors, windows, mezzanine. Thus, the stone has determined every building element from ornament to carrier system. Another factor in shaping this architecture is the climate of the region. In addition, semi-open spaces such as iwans and portico, which have an important place in architecture, are directed in a way that they can be overshadowed especially against the western sun.
As a result of maintaining the historical tradition until today, Mardin’s masonry houses, identified with the city, have a privileged position in Anatolian housing architecture with their plan features and materials and decorations.
MATERIAL USED IN MARDIN HOUSES
Mardin is one of the settlements of Southeastern Anatolia, showing a different structure. The city is 2,500 m long, 500 m long, from east to west on the southern skirts of the Mazı Mountains (Masius). was established in a wide area. Mardin houses seem to be stacked on top of each other when viewed from the castle and across. This overlapping construction, which was born from a natural location, gives the city a unique appearance and the white houses that start from the skirt of the castle with a tree-like appearance, descend to the plain in steps, create an interesting contradiction.
This building, which maintains its medieval architecture today, is the urban structure of Diyarbakır (unlike its structure, it shows a closed region character) mixed with Urfa and Northern influences, which is the border of Northern Syrian architecture.
The material used in Mardin houses is stone. However, this stone used has a light colored yellowish structure called different from the normal stone. The most important feature of these stones is that they can be processed easily, so that they can be processed easily and thus, they provide rich decoration.
This limy formation, which is easily processed and hardened after a period of time, is still used in every period of Mardin buildings with the same comfort. No plaster materials are used in these houses. In order to clean the stones at a certain time, the stone scraps are turned into sand and the wall is cleaned with this sand. Mortar is obtained from this sand mixed with lime in the knitting process of the walls. The wall is built with this mortar. The fact that wooden material was not used in Mardin is not due to its mouth, but because it is closely connected to the stone tradition of Mardin people. It is so settled that even concrete structures are still alive today.
INVESTIGATION OF MARDIN HOUSES IN TERMS OF ARCHITECTURAL PLAN
Mardin houses are settled on the southern slope of the hill as terraces rising from each other on the outskirts of the castle towards the plain. Its location is a volcanic region. A unique architecture has been developed, which continues the historical tradition today. The front courtyard of all buildings in Mardin faces the facade. Doors opening to the Mesopotamian plain have at least two floors as they are built on the slope of the hill. No house shade falls on top of each other.
The narrow streets, which are arranged in contrast to the sun rays, stay in the shade in summer roasting according to the climatic conditions, protecting people from heat. The stones used in these houses become harder in hot and cold. Due to the characteristics of the stones, summers are cool and winters are hot. Cross vaults are used to create the floor ceiling. Ceilings come in two or four vaults. We have said that it has at least two floors before, although the top floor from the lower floor is not generally used today; barn, under pantry, etc. was used for purposes. From the entrance door, you enter the courtyard of the lower floor. You can reach the lower floor with a staircase made of upper stone.
Old Mardin houses consist of two parts called harem and selamlık. There is a room where the man accommodates his guests. In terms of stonework, this room is generally the room where the house is taken care of. This section has a coffee stove. There is also a place where residents reside